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States of Matter Project
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Viscosity

 
Measure of the resistance of a liquid to flow, which is affected by the size and shape of particles, and generally increases as the temperature decreases and as intermolecular forces increase.

 
 
The resistance of this syrup to flow is viscosity.

 
 
 
 
 
Surface Tension
 
 
The energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid by a given amount; results from an uneven distribution of attractive forces
 
The inward pull from the interior of the water particles cause it to form into a drop.
 
 
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Surfactant
 
 
A compound, such as soap, that lowers the surface tension of water by disrupting hydrogen bonds between water molecules; also called a surface active agent.

Crystalline Solid
 
A solid whose atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in an orderly, geometric, three-dimensional structure; can be classified by shape and by composition.

The molecules in ice are packed together in a predictable way making it a crystalline solid.

 
 
 
 
Molecular Solid
 
 
Consist of atoms or molecules held together by intermolecular forces (dipole-dipole, dispersion and hydrogen bonds).  These forces are weaker than covalent bonds. Therefore molecular solids are soft, and have a generally low melting temperature.
 
 
Although most molecular compounds are not solids at room temperature, molecular compounds such as sugar are solid at room temperature because of their large molar masses.

Viscosity
syrup.jpg

drip.jpg
Surface Tension

glycerin_soap.jpg
Surfactant

glacier.jpg

sugar.jpg
Molecular Solids

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