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States of Matter Project

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Covalent Solids
 

Covalent solids contain atoms that are connected by covalent bonds.  They are very hard, have very high melting points and often have very poor conductivity.
 
 
A diamond meets the definition of a covalent solid as it is the hardest natural surface.
 
 
 
 
Ionic Solid
 
In an ionic solid, the atoms are mostly in ionic form, and the ions are held together by the electrostatic attraction between the ions. 
 
 
Ionic solids such as NaCl, or table salt, are characterized by a high melting point, are strong, and are poor conductors of electricity.

Vaporization
 
 
The enery-requiring process by which a liquid changes to a gas or vapor.
 
Steam is an example of vaporization in that water is changing into a gaseous state of matter.
 

Evaporation
 
 
The process in which vaporization occurs only at the surface of a liquid.
 
 
In this picture, you can see the evaporation, which is only occurring at the surface of the water.

 
 
 
Vapor Pressure
 
 
 
The pressure exerted by a vapor over a liquid.
 
 
 
Water vapor collects above the liquid and exerts pressure on the surface of the liquid.

 
 
Boiling Point
 
 
The temperature at which a liquid's vapor pressure is equal to the external or atmospheric pressure.
 
At the boiling point, bubbles of vapor collect below the surface of the liquid and rise to the surface.

Covalent Solids
diamond.jpg

salt.jpg
Ionic Solid

steam.jpg
Vaporization

evaporation.jpg
Evaporation

vaporpressure.gif
Vapor Pressure

boilingwater.jpg
Boiling Point

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Shaun McPeters