Covalent solids contain atoms that are connected by covalent bonds.
They are very hard, have very high melting points and often have very poor conductivity.
A diamond meets the definition of a covalent solid as it is the hardest natural
In an ionic solid, the atoms are mostly in ionic form, and the ions are held together by the electrostatic attraction
between the ions.
Ionic solids such as NaCl, or table salt, are characterized by a high melting point, are
strong, and are poor conductors of electricity.
The enery-requiring process by which a liquid changes to a gas or vapor.
Steam is an example of vaporization in that water is changing into a gaseous state of matter.
The process in which vaporization occurs only at the surface of a liquid.
In this picture, you can see the evaporation, which is only occurring at the surface of the water.
The pressure exerted by a vapor over a liquid.
Water vapor collects above the liquid and exerts pressure on the surface of the liquid.
The temperature at which a liquid's vapor pressure is equal to the external or
At the boiling point, bubbles of vapor collect below the surface of the liquid and rise to the surface.